When next willRosh Hashannahbegin on a new Gregorian date?

For some reason, which remains to be explained, a new
** Gregorian** date for the beginning of

For example, the Hebrew year **4683H**, the **9th** year of the
**247th cycle**, began on **Thu 1 Oct 922g**, the first time since
year **1H** that *Rosh Hashannah* began on **Oct 1**.

It is the introduction of new Gregorian dates for the beginning of
*Rosh Hashannah*, always at the **9th** year of the
*mahzor katan*, which gives significance to the
**9th** year of the *mahzor katan*.

The next time that a new ** Gregorian** date will be introduced
for the first day of

The new month of ** Elul 5760H** begins on

AfterElul5760H, which starts on Friday 1 September 2000g, when next will thefirstday of a Hebrew month coincide with thefirstday of acalendar month?Gregorian

Correspondent **Larry Padwa** sent in the correct answer, which is

Sunday 1-June 2003 falling on 1-Sivan 5763.

Thank you **Larry Padwa** for your prompt reply!

What does the coming Hebrew year 5761H (Mon 30 Sep 2000g) have in common with the year in which the Gregorian calendar was introduced?

The **Gregorian** calendar was introduced on **19 Tishrei 5343H
(15 Oct 1582g)**.

**5343H** was the **4th** year of the **282nd** *mahzor katan*
(19 Hebrew year cycle),

since **5343 = 281 * 19 + 4**.

The coming Hebrew year **5761H** is the **4th** year of the
**304th** *mahzor katan*,

since **5761 = 303 * 19 + 4**.

Therefore, the coming Hebrew year **5761H (Mon 30 Sep 2000g)**,
and the year in which the **Gregorian** calendar was introduced,
have in common, **the same place in the mahzor katan**.

Correspondent **Kenneth Kirchhevel** shared some rather interesting
information governing the months that are named in
** Tanach** (the Bible). The next question is based on that data.

Which calendar months arenamedinTanach(the Bible)?

Correspondent **Kenneth Kirchhevel** shared some rather interesting
information governing the months that are named in
** Tanach** (the Bible). He noted the following:-

Here are some references for the months I told you about.

which placesEx. 13:4as the month of theAvivwhich is also the current month ofExodus??.

for1Kings 6:1&37as theZif??month corresponding to??.

for1Kings 8:2as theEthanim??month corresponding to??.

And lastly,inBulthe1Kings 6:38??month corresponding to??, if my memory is working right.

Of course, correspondent **Kenneth Kirchhevel** filled in the
question marks with the traditionally held information. Those
**??**'s are the subject of our next ** Weekly Question**.

What are the traditionally held correspondences of the biblically named months to the months in our present Hebrew calendar?

Correspondent **Kenneth Kirchhevel** shared some rather interesting
information governing the months that are named in
** Tanach** (the Bible). He noted the following:-

Here are some references for the months I told you about.

which placesEx. 13:4as the month of theAvivwhich is also the current month ofExodusNisan.

for1Kings 6:1&37as theZifsecondmonth corresponding toIyar.

for1Kings 8:2as theEthanimseventhmonth corresponding toTishrei.

And lastly,inBulthe1Kings 6:38eighthmonth corresponding toHeshvan, if my memory is working right.

Thank you correspondent **Kenneth Kirchhevel** for bringing these very
interesting calendar facts to our attention.

The month preceding **Rosh HaShannah** is today known as
** Elul**.

**Rabbi Steven S. Saltzman** of the **Adath Israel Congregation**
in Downsview, Ontario, Canada, noted a very charming fact related to the
name of that month.

The Hebrew letters which form the namealso represent the acronym for whichElulvery well knownscriptural sentence?

The Hebrew letters used to form the name of the month * Elul*
are

These letters correspond to the first letter of each of the words in the
Hebrew scriptural sentence ** Ani Ledodi Vedodi Li**
(I am my beloved's and my beloved is mine).

The expression is found in ** Shir HaShirim**
(Song of Songs or Solomon's Song) at

Thank you **Rabbi Steven S. Saltzman** of the
**Adath Israel Congregation** in Downsview, Ontario, Canada,
for having shared this very charming fact related to the
month * Elul*.

*Rosh Hashannah***5761H** begins on ** Shabbat**
corresponding to

The *molad of Tishrei***5761H** occurred on the preceding
**Thursday at 19h 17m 4hl**.

This particular *molad* therefore invoked
** Dehiyyah Molad Zakein** thereby causing

The year **5761H** is **353 days** long and is therefore called a
** deficient or imperfect** year.

In the **5** consecutive Hebrew years which began with **5760H**,
**5761H** is the **second** of the **4 years** which begin on
** Shabbat**.

Can you mention at least 3 other calendar related features of the Hebrew year 5761H?

**1.** The ** molad of Heshvan** will occur prior to the time of the

**2.** The month of ** Nisan** begins on

**3.** The year value **5761 = 7 * 823**, a whole multiple of 7.
According to some rabbinic traditions, this means that **5761H** is
a year of ** Shmittah** which in biblical terms means a year of
release in the land of Israel.

**4.** ** Pesach 5761H** begins on

The next ** Weekly Question** has been suggested by several
correspondents over the last few months.

Without any of thedehiyyot(Rosh Hashannahpostponement rules) why are the possible Hebrew year lengths 354, 355, 383, and 384 days?

The ** molad of Tishrei** for any year

For example, the *molad* of Tishrei **5761H** is
**Thursday 19h 310p**.

Let **d** represent the day of the ** molad of Tishrei** and

Let

The **INT**eger portion of **m** is **[INT(m)] = d**
and is the day of the *molad*.

The quantity to be added to the ** molad of Tishrei H** in order to
determine the time of the

**354d 8h 876p** if year **H** is a **12-month** year or

**383d 21h 589p** if year **H** is a **13-month** year.

In either case, let **A + a** represent the amount to be added to the
time of the ** molad of Tishrei H** so as to determine
the

Let **m1** represent the time of the ** molad of Tishrei H+1**.

Then **m1 = m + A + a = d + f + A + a**

The day of the ** molad of Tishrei H+1** is

Hence, the number of days in year **H** is given by the expression

**INT(m1) - INT(m) = d + A + INT(f + a) - d = A + INT(f + a)**

Since both **f** and **a** are positive fractions of a day,
**INT(f + a)** can be either **0 or 1**.

From the last equation, it is to be noted that if **(f + a) => 1 day**
then the **12** month year is **355** days long and the **13**
month year is **384** days long, since **INT(f + a) = 1**.

Similarly, if **(f + a) < 1** then **INT(f + a) = 0** and the
**12** month year is **354** days long, while the **13**
month year is **383** days long.

Therefore, the possible Hebrew year lengths in the absence of the
*dehiyyot* (postponement rules) can be either
**354, 355, 383, 384** days.

The Hebrew calendar scholars added a postponement rule known as
** Dehiyyah Lo ADU Rosh**. The rule postpones

the day of the

Why does the Hebrew calendar postponement ruleLo ADU Roshlead to 8 possible Hebrew year lengths?

The ** molad of Tishrei** for any year

For example, the *molad* of Tishrei **5761H** is
**Thursday 19h 310p**.

Let **d** represent the day of the ** molad of Tishrei** and

Let

The **INT**eger portion of **m** is **[INT(m)] = d**
and is the day of the *molad*.

Under ** Lo ADU Rosh** the start of

Let **r = d + p**

where

**r** is the day of *Rosh Hashannah* and
**p** is the postponement value.

It should be realized that **p** can be either **0 or 1**.

The quantity to be added to the ** molad of Tishrei H** in order to
determine the time of the

**354d 8h 876p** if year **H** is a **12-month** year or

**383d 21h 589p** if year **H** is a **13-month** year.

In either case, let **A + a** represent the amount to be added to the
time of the ** molad of Tishrei H** so as to determine
the

It is to be noted that **INT(A+a) = A**

Let **m1** represent the time of the ** molad of Tishrei H+1**.

Then **m1 = m + A + a = d + f + A + a**

The day of the ** molad of Tishrei H+1** is

Let **p1** be the postponement required for the start of
** Rosh Hashannah year H+1**.

Then **r1**, the first day of ** Rosh Hashannah year H+1**
is given as

Consequently, the length of year **H** is given by

**r1 - r = d + A + INT(f + a) + p1 - (d + p) = A + INT(f + a) + p1 - p**.

Since the possible values for each of **INT(f + a), p1, and p**
is either **0 or 1**, the possible values for the expression
**INT(f + a) + p1 - p** are either **-1, 0, 1, or 2**.

Consequently, for a given value of **A, r1 - r** has one of
**4** possible values.

If **A = 354**, then **r1 - r** can be either
**353, 354, 355, or 356**.

If **A = 383**, then **r1 - r** can be either
**382, 383, 384, or 385**.

Therefore, ** Lo ADU Rosh** causes

The ancient calendar scholars, using a method that is extremely simple,
and well documented, ** eliminated** the

The next question addresses a problem that is faced by anyone wishing to determine possible lengths of Hebrew year periods unaided by computers.

For any possible period of Hebrew years, what are the possible number of Hebrew leap years within that period of time?

This question addresses a problem that is faced by anyone wishing to determine possible lengths of Hebrew year periods unaided by computers.

Correspondent **Larry Padwa** answered this question using an assumption
that each period of years can be expressed in the form of **19 * K + r**.

Number of Years Minimum Number Maximum Number of Leap Years of Leap Years =================================================== 19K 7K 7K --------------------------------------------------- 19K+1 7K 7K+1 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+2 7K 7K+1 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+3 7K+1 7K+2 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+4 7K+1 7K+2 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+5 7K+1 7K+2 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+6 7K+2 7K+3 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+7 7K+2 7K+3 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+8 7K+2 7K+3 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+9 7K+3 7K+4 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+10 7K+3 7K+4 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+11 7K+4 7K+5 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+12 7K+4 7K+5 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+13 7K+4 7K+5 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+14 7K+5 7K+6 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+15 7K+5 7K+6 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+16 7K+5 7K+6 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+17 7K+6 7K+7 --------------------------------------------------- 19K+18 7K+6 7K+7 ===================================================

Correspondent **Larry Padwa** also explained why there are two possible
numbers of leap years for any period that is not a multiple of **19**
Hebrew years.

The leap years (L) and common years (c) are distributed as follows in every 19 year cycle:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 c c L c c L c L c c L c c L c c L c LThe period can start at any point in the cycle. Thus in the simplest case, for a period of length 1 (or 19K+1) you can start at a leap or a common year, giving two possible results. Other period lengths are similar. Thus for a three year period, starting at year 6 or 17 yields 2 leaps; any other starting point yields one leap. In general, if you start at year 6 or 17 you'll get one more leap year than if you start at year 9 or 1 for the same length period, unless the length is a multiple of 19 in which case the entire cycle is covered regardless of the starting point.

Thank you **Larry Padwa** for sharing with us this very thorough
analysis.

One of the more prevalent practices, among the Jewish people, is that of
reading the entire Mosaic text of their scriptures (Torah) over the course
of one Hebrew year. At ** Simchat Torah**, the last few verses are read, and then the entire cycle is repeated once again from

The scriptural readings are divided into contiguous weekly portions, which
are read in their entirety each Shabbat morning. Each division is known as
a ** Parshah** or

Correspondent **Larry Padwa** noted that in **5761H (2000g/2001g)**
**Sedrah Vayyelech** will only be partially read.

First Begun 21 Jun 1998 First Paged 5 Nov 2004 Next Revised 12 Nov 2004